Generally, it is not possible to "convert" bitmap JPEGs to Adobe Illustrator vector AI drawings. However, you can paste a JPG file in Illustrator and save it as part of drawing. But that will basically import an object, not convert the files.
Convert JPEG bitmap image format to Adobe Illustrator graphics file.
We have found 2 software records in our database eligible for .jpeg to .ai file format conversion.
Microsoft Windows software - convert jpeg to ai on Windows
A set of applications used by professional graphic designers
Convert from jpeg file format
The tables with software actions are a good pointer for what a certain program does with various file types and often may give users a good hint how to perform certain file conversion, for example the above-mentioned jpeg to ai. However, it is not perfect and sometimes can show results which are not really usable because of how certain programs work with files and the possible conversion is thus actually not possible at all.
A vector-based drawing software